What excavation means?

Excavation is the act or process of digging, especially when something specific is being removed from the ground. Archaeologists use excavation to find artifacts and fossils.

What are the types of excavation?

Types of Excavation

  • Earth excavation is removal of the layer of soil immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock.
  • Muck excavation is removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil.
  • Unclassified excavation is removal of any combination of topsoil, earth, rock, and muck.

What is the excavation work?

Excavation work generally means work involving the removal of soil or rock from a site to form an open face, hole or cavity, using tools, machinery or explosives.

How is excavation done in site?

The major works done before, while and after excavation are as follows,

  1. Setting out of corner benchmarks.
  2. Survey for ground levels.
  3. Survey for top levels.
  4. Excavation to approved depth.
  5. Dressing of loose soil.
  6. Making up to cut off level.
  7. Constructing dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches.
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What are the steps of excavation?

The excavation process includes:

  1. setting corner benchmarks.
  2. surveying ground and top levels.
  3. excavation to the approved depth.
  4. dressing the loose soil.
  5. marking up the cut off level.
  6. the construction of dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches.
  7. marking the boundaries of the building.
  8. the construction of protection drains.

Why do we need excavation?

Excavation is used in construction to create building foundations, reservoirs and roads. Some of the different processes used in excavation include trenching, digging, dredging and site development. Each of these processes requires unique techniques, tools and machinery to get the job done right.

What is Type D excavation?

02 Type D – Common – Common material is all other excavation materials of a nature not included in the foregoing description of Type A, regardless of the nature or condition of the material, or the method used to excavate or remove.

What are the excavation tools?

Types of Soil Excavation Tools and Machines in Construction

  • Spade.
  • Shovel.
  • Hoe.
  • Trowel.
  • Rake.
  • Pick axe.
  • Mattock.

What is common excavation?

Common excavation is the excavation of soil materials from within the contract limits; however, this excavation is not limited to soil materials and may include existing HMA pavement. Section 203 further defines embankment construction as the excavation, hauling, and disposal or compaction of all material.

What are two types of excavation techniques?

A number of methods are used to provide a support system:

  • Shielding.
  • Shoring.
  • Benching.
  • Battering.

What is the next step after excavation?

After excavation, layout the foundation and backfill the remaining excavated area around foundation with soil. Floor levels of residential buildings are higher than the natural ground level. Fill the area with soil up to floor levels and compact the soil. Now earth work of residential building is finished.

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What are the risk of excavation?

There are a range of health and safety risks associated with excavation work including:

  • falls from one level to another.
  • the fall or dislodgement of earth or rock.
  • vibration and hazardous noise.
  • exposure to an airborne contaminant.

What are the different types of excavation with example?

Excavation by Material

  • Topsoil Excavation. As the name suggests, this type of excavation involves the removal of the exposed or the topmost area of the earth’s surface.
  • Rock Excavation.
  • Muck Excavation.
  • Earth Excavation.
  • Cut and Fill Excavation.
  • Trench Excavation.
  • Basement Excavation.
  • Dredging.

What is cut and fill excavation?

Cut and fill excavation is also known as excavation and embankment. It’s a process where excavators move and place volumes of material to create optimal terrain for a road, railway or canal.

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